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The Life of Alfred Binet pt. 5

Fort Lauderdale Criminal Attorney Kenneth Padowitz explores the life of Alfred Binet

In July of 1905, the first version of the Simon-Scale of intelligence was published in L’Annee Psychologique. Up until this point, there was no reliable standardized test for intelligence in existence; except for the Western world, the test was not widely accepted or used until after Binet’s death, not until the late 1920’s for France. The development of this test is what Binet is most recognized for today, as it was able to establish a “progressive metric scale of intelligence”. The test was created within only a few weeks, consisting of 5 subtests and 25 abstract questions that had been based on fifteen years of Binet’s research; certain sections, including the test which measured short-term memory and produced by Jacobs in 1887, were directly taken from other studies. The sample size for testing the validity of the original Binet-Simon scale only consisted of 50 children. It was also the first intelligence test to arrange the questions in order of ascending difficulty; this concept is still used in the current versions of the Standford-Binet scale being used today. Many of the subtests as well as specific questions in… Read More

The Life of Alfred Binet pt. 4

Life of alfred binet | Fort Lauderdale DUI Attorney

In 1897, with the help of Edouard-Gerard Balbiani, an embryologist, Binet founded and directed Intermediaire des Biologistes. Organe International de Zoologie, Botanique, Physiologie et Psychologie. The journal was not affiliated with any school, and was created with the purpose of creating just another outlet of communication for psychologists. In 1899, Theodore Simon and Henri Pieron joined the lab, and began working under Binet at Sorbonne. Simon provided many needed test subjects and helped Binet continue building upon the work that had been started with “Individual Psychology”. Around this time, Binet joined the La Societe Libre Pour l’Etude Psychologique de l’Enfant (SLEPE), the free society for the psychological study of the child, which was a group of teachers, psychologists, and school administrators that were all involved in current educational issues. By 1902, he became its president. In 1903, Binet published his book, L’Etude Experimentale de l’Intelligence, which explained certain exercises that he used and noted their results. Today, they are referred to as projective tests, which included: responses to ink blots, imaginative storytelling in response to stimuli, sentence-completion questionnaires. It is worth noting that the inkblot tests that… Read More

The Life of Alfred Binet pt. 3

alfred binet | Fort Lauderdale Federal Criminal Attorney

For the next year after, Binet was unaffiliated with any institution, and instead conducted home experiments on his two daughters, using various puzzles and mental tests. In 1891, he met someone at the Rouen train station by the name of Henri-Etienne Beaunis, who happened to be the director of France’s first experimental psychology lab, called the Laboratory of Physiological Psychology at Sorbonne. Soon after, Binet volunteered to work as an unpaid assistant, under the direction of Beaunis. Only a year later, Binet became deputy director of the laboratory; By 1893, he started issuing a newsletter a newsletter at the lab, Bulletin des Travaux du Laboratoire de Psychologie Physiologique. In 1894, Binet replaced Beaunis and gained the title of director, which was still an unpaid position. In the same year, he founded the first French psychological journal called L’Annee psychologiqu, and he also earned a Ph.D. in natural science; his dissertation being on the anatomy and physiology of the sub-intestinal nervous system of insects. The L’Annee psychologiqu is focused on laboratory research, and still regularly issued as of today. As the director of his Sorbonne laboratory, Binet conducted… Read More

The Life of Alfred Binet pt. 2

The life of Alfred Binet | Fort Lauderdale Criminal Attorney

From 1883-1890, Binet was able to conduct his research at the hospital, by volunteering as an unpaid assistant of Charcot’s. In 1884, he married Laure Balbiani, the daughter of a well-known biologist who held professorship at the College de France. Together they had two daughters, Madeleine in 1885 and Alice in 1887. In 1886, Binet wrote a report on exterior perception, which he later won an award for at the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. Also in 1886, he published his first book La Psychologie du raisonnement; and in 1887, another book called Le magnetisme animal. Etudes de psychologie experimentale, a book Binet helped write that focused on the psychic life of microorganisms, hypnosis and hysteria, was also published, in 1888. During his time at the hospital, and under the influence of Charcot,  They obtained the same results as Charcot had in his own research, and were from then on believers in its validity. Binet was considered by many an aggressive proponent of Charcot’s grand hypnotisme; many believe this was due to the fact that Binet was offered his first position in the field of psychology… Read More

The Life of Alfred Binet

alfred binet | Fort Lauderdale DUI Attorney

Alfred Binet has made significant contributions within the field of psychology, although most of his research did not gain the popularity it deserved. He is most recognized for his development of the first standardized intelligence test, even though for most of his career he was focused on many other areas.  The purpose of this paper is to explore the life of Alfred Binet up until his death, going into greater detail in many areas of his research, how he has contributed to today’s knowledge in the field of psychology, and why he is not as recognized as he should be for his discoveries. Binet was born in 1857 in Nice, France, and was the only child of wealthy parents; his father, Edoardo Binet, a physician, and his mother, Moina Allard, an artist. After his parents went through a divorce, he lived solely with his mother. At age 15 they both moved to Paris where he completed high school, and then went ahead and earned his law degree at the University of Paris, in 1878. He never ended up practicing law or trying to start a legal practice… Read More

Frustration Hypothesis of Criminal Behavior

frustration and criminal behavior | Fort Lauderdale criminal attorney

What Role Does Frustration Play in Criminal Behavior? Frustration and criminal behavior may be related, but the relationship between the two is complex. It is hypothesized that the more intense and frequent the periods of frustration are in a person’s life, the more sensitive they may become to future frustrating events. When various animals, including humans, are unable to respond in a way that has previously produced a reward, their behavior may often become frantic, energetic, or aggressive. For instance, animals may bite, growl, or scratch; even humans may do this as well, becoming increasingly irritable or rambunctious. Frustration can be seen as an internal state of arousal, producing feelings and behaviors with the goal of reducing the aversive experience. When such behaviors produce the desired result of reducing frustration, they may become reinforced or strengthened. If an individual chooses to act violently, that behavior may reduce the aversive arousal, and will be seen as rewarding; over time, this violent behavior may escalate, and under extreme circumstances may result in murder or other violent crimes. Criminal personalities can be divided into two different groups: the socialized offenders, and… Read More

Association with Anti-Social Peers Inversely Related to DUI

Fort Lauderdale DUI Attorney Kenneth Padowitz | DUI and deviant peer groups

Most research on drunk driving tends to come from various social science communities focused on driving safety or substance abuse. Most individuals do not perceive a DUI as they would a normal “street crime”; and as a result there is very little research looking at the criminological concepts. Alcohol is seen as a social lubricant and its use is widespread in our culture. Driving under the influence often begins with attendance of a sporting event, having drinks at a bar, or just meeting some buddies for drinks after a day of work. This results in some individuals drinking enough to be over the legal limit and then continue to get behind the wheel. Repeat DUI offending is commonly thought of as a byproduct of alcoholism or substance abuse. Although alcohol addiction may be related to recidivism, it cannot on its own provide a decent explanation as to why some individuals never get arrested for DUI, or only once, and others are arrested 3-4 or more times in a matter of a couple years. Many researchers believe that there are actually more complex social and psychological cognitive processes… Read More


delinquent peer influence | Fort Lauderdale criminal attorney Kenneth Padowitz

While individual and family risk factors play a larger role early in life, negative peer influences usually begin to play an increasingly larger role in early adolescence. A relationship between delinquent peer influence and juvenile offending is generally well established throughout the field of forensic psychology; what is unclear though is whether or not this association with delinquent peers is a result of antisocial tendencies developed earlier in life, or if it actually contributes to the overall risk of developing delinquent behavior. It has been suggested that deviant peer groups do in fact influence non-delinquent individuals to become delinquent. According to the National Youth Survey of juveniles ages eleven to seventeen, a common pattern that was seen was a child switching from a non-delinquent peer group to a deviant peer group, resulting in the commission of various minor offenses, and in some cases more severe crimes. Gang membership is also strongly correlated with self-reported criminal activity. It is suggested that the association of peer groups with antisocial tendencies leads to a greater suspiciousness of other people’s motives, resulting in further hostile and aggressive responses to those outside… Read More


criminal attorney | Juvenile delinquency risk factors

Environmental factors, which include both static and dynamic factors, are also believed to play a significant role in the proper development of a child.It was found that low-income children had a significantly higher risk of antisocial behavior before the age of 5, leading to criminal behavior in adolescence in mixed neighborhoods, compared to those living in concentrated poverty. Non-poor children are also associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior when living in mixed neighborhoods, compared to children surrounded by equally affluent families. Although these individuals are at higher risk of becoming delinquent, the majority of children living in poverty or mixed neighborhoods do not grow to become juvenile offenders; this is referred to as resiliency, a term used to describe an individual’s ability to grow into an adult who lives a socially acceptable lifestyle, despite the exposure to any negative risk factors. Family factors can include parenting practices, divorce, and family size. It has been found that the families of children with conduct problems are eight times more likely to be involved in disciplinary conflict, and are half as likely to engage in positive interactions with parents… Read More


criminal defense attorney | Risk factors for criminal behavior

In the field of forensic psychological research, not only is importance given to the neurophysiological, cognitive, and psychosocial components of juvenile delinquency that were discussed above, but interest is also given to the various ecological and individual, risk and protective factors of juvenile offending. Risk factors are often used to assess the probability of an individual becoming delinquent, and the chances for repeat offending. Risk factors generally include any individual or environmental factors that increase the likelihood of negative behaviors or juvenile offending. Protective factors are thought to decrease the likelihood of negative behavior, or mitigate the negative effect of certain risk factors. Some factors are considered to be static, which are unable to be changed, such as the increased risk of criminal behavior in the male gender; others are dynamic factors, which can potentially be changed, such as inadequate parenting or discipline. The number of factors, and the length of exposure to them, determines the severity of the impact on the child’s behavior. Individual factors are often thought to be the most influential during early years, and include the individual’s temperament. Low intelligence, and the existence of… Read More